I recently graduated with a bachelor's degree in Finance. I would love to go back and get a teaching degree. Do universities have programs to allow non-educational degrees to earn a teaching certificate? It does not matter to me if it is a degree towards elementary or secondary education. Also, what kind of teaching jobs could I pursue with a Finance background?
You don't need another degree to teach in public K-12 education--your bachelor's in Finance will satisfy the degree requirement. You may, however, need to supplement your bachelor's with a teacher training program. Many teacher training programs are specifically designed for those who already have a college degree, and can be completed in about a year. In many states, you can even hold a paid teaching position while taking the training program.
These accelerated training programs (called "alternative certification" or "post-baccalaureate" programs) are available at community colleges, school districts, regional service centers, and some colleges and universities. You can even find teacher training programs online. You'll learn effective teaching strategies and curriculum development and take elective courses in areas such as bilingual education, adolescent psychology, etc. If your state also requires a certification exam, your program will also involve test preparation.
You're already well on your way to a teaching career with your bachelor's degree. Check with your state for additional requirements such as a training program and/or certification exam. Most likely, you'll be teaching your first class in a year or less.